A significant personal reason for pursuing this study is that in my role as an occupational therapist, I occasionally find myself at a loss to know how to best support people in maintaining, restoring, or developing their involvement in meaningful activities a frequent goal in occupational therapy intervention. Some people I have worked with have also expressed sentiments such as,? I lost 20 years of my life to this illness? Meaning, these individuals felt they could not do the things they wanted or needed to do for a long period of time, decades even, due to their illness.
Fundamentally, much of what I have learned in my career as an occupational therapist has come from people who live with schizophrenia. It is therefore apparent to me that people who live with schizophrenia have a great deal of genuine expertise to share in terms of their experiences Borg, ; Davidson, ; Schneider, with meaningful activities Sutton, Renea edited the ensuing passage in March This interview experience helped to distill my own pre-understanding of meaning as it relates to activity participation.
This interview provided an exemplar of someone who engages in activities she perceives as being deeply personally meaningful. She actively made choices regarding her employment so she could make use of her experiences with schizophrenia to help others. I respect this person and am in awe of how she speaks about her illness and how she includes a loved one in her wellness plan. From her perspective she has a good quality of life. At the time of the interview I had only met a handful of people who said this while living with schizophrenia.
I also gained a deeper understanding of how Renea is required to manage symptoms from time to time that impact her ability to do the things she loves. I remain impressed with her ability to articulate how her experience with schizophrenia has shaped her choice of volunteer activities, how she chooses to engage with her community and her work life.
I am doing my chosen work now, work that means a lot more to me than what I set out to do originally? Renea Mohammed, personal communication, March 1, In her current role as consumer leader, educator, and key change agent within a large community mental health organization, she uses her experience and expertise to provide instrumental support and hope to others who live with significant mental health issues including schizophrenia. The next section returns to the interview procedure.
At interview one, the researcher ensured that the informed consent was signed and provided a copy to the participant before proceeding 36 with the interview questions. The first interview consisted of informally ascertaining demographic information such as: The researcher also briefly asked about the experience of schizophrenia and recovery. A significant aim of this initial interview was to seek maximum variation of the phenomena being studied.
For example, the study sought variation in the kinds of activities being done, the frequency of participation, the reasons people participated in those activities, and the meaning the activities held for participants. In order to obtain variation, the researcher offered follow-up interviews to individuals who demonstrated a range in these characteristics. Interview one was carried out at an appointed location UBC or VCMHS administrative office , and subsequent interviews occurred at a location of the participant?
These purposes are often representative of different phases of the interview process. In this study the interviews occurred over a two year period which afforded the gathering of rich experiential stories from the participants. All participants were interviewed four times. Field notes recording my observations and reflections were also a rich source of data. Interviews took place in mutually agreeable locations that had some significance for participants such as a clubhouse, a favourite place and a familiar coffee shop.
Participants chose their own pseudonyms for the study. The resulting data were subsequently analyzed for understanding of meaning in activity for participants. Upon completion of each interview, a transcriptionist who had signed a confidentiality agreement transcribed the data verbatim from the audio file. All pauses and repetitions were left unedited in the transcripts. I checked each transcript for accuracy and discovered that occasionally the transcriptionist made an error in word selection.
In addition, missing data were added where possible a word may have been unintelligible. These gaps were corrected where possible after a careful review of the audio file and appropriate corrections were added. Questions were also asked about mood, feelings, emotions and bodily sensations such as smell or touch.
These lifeworld existentials were used as guides for reflection during the analysis phase. The factual accuracy of the account was less important than? In other words, it was more important that the description presents as something that could reasonably be experienced rather than its accuracy. Questions encouraged participants to describe specific situations or experiences in greater detail such as? And so then what happens after you come home?? Or prompts such as? Would you say you have more energy??
The idea of prolonged engagement is typical of a hermeneutic interview in the ongoing development of the transcripts. During this study I consulted with participants on four occasions and each subsequent interview built on previous conversations, which served to validate and deepen my understanding of the phenomena. As noted by van Manen , gathering and interpreting data are seldom separate or discrete phases. During these subsequent interviews, additional time and space was offered to respond to specific topics that arose for each individual during the interview.
Additional interviews also provided an opportunity to address issues that arose during the preliminary analysis with committee members. For example, during the analysis phase, a committee member suggested additional questions regarding the phenomena of boredom in order to better understand this experience. The final interviews allowed for space to consider how participants experienced a sense of possibility in their activity participation. Through an iterative process and with the use of a word table all participants offered verbal feedback on my descriptions of their activities and my interpretations of meaning regarding those activities.
These collaborative experiences offered a powerful opportunity to deepen understandings. In addition, some participants also gave written feedback and this data was also folded into the data. For example, Peter offered a letter that a friend sent in appreciation of their friendship and this document contributed to the understanding of belonging for this participant. Others asked for a copy of my notes and adjusted my descriptions and interpretations as they saw fit. For example, Rebel Girl self-identified pseudonym began listing all the activities she was engaged with and seemed to provide this information in a rather remote fashion.
However, over time the speed at which she provided the information decreased and her accounts seemed more complete in terms of the experience rendered. After 40 interviews, an adequate depth and breadth of experience was obtained and this showed as many of the new interviews provided similar information to that collected in previous interviews.
The final interviews allowed an opportunity to consider the notion of possibilities as experienced by participants through their activity participation. I asked participants to consider their hopes and dreams in terms of activities and I also asked if they had advice for other people who live with schizophrenia. A summary of findings will be provided to them in recognition of their participation.
The following section outlines the phases of analysis that brought me to articulate the findings. I divided the analysis into two phases. The first phase began with a descriptive analysis and moved into a second phase, an interpretive analysis. The first phase essentially answered the initial part of the question by identifying the activities that people engaged in. The second phase was an interpretative analysis that rendered findings regarding the meanings of activities.
During the early descriptive phase I primarily drew from the work of Husserl. I was also guided by the work of Giorgi and Giorgi and Willig? Giorgi and Giorgi and Willig provided a helpful step-by-step approach to analysis that considered the? In other words, this approach to analysis allowed me to consider context.
This approach to analysis offers one interpretation of the data and it is acknowledged? These Mus are contextual units that contain one aspect of the phenomena. The intention was to provide a more rich understanding of activity participation that could also inform the context in which these activities took place. Every time I perceived a change in meaning a new meaning unit was established.
These Mus were formatted into a table using Microsoft Word Please see Appendix D Each transcript rendered approximately 50 Mus and the study rendered approximately 2, Mus in total. In this thesis, participant quotations are identified by participant initials followed by interview number, followed by a period and number indicating a specific Mu. Step two involved a phenomenological reduction intended to describe the phenomenon that presented itself by seeking pre-reflective experiences as much as possible while acknowledging that this can be a challenge.
The first action is to identify the physical P features of the experience such as shape, size, color and texture, as well as experiential features of the experience such as the thoughts or cognitions C and feelings E that appear in our consciousness as we attend to the phenomenon Willig, That is, while phenomenological reduction is concerned with 'what' is experienced i.
The aim of imaginative variation is to identify the conditions associated with the phenomenon and without which it would not be what it is; the context. This could involve time, space or social relationships Willig, I added a final constituent of experience i. As noted meaning here was consistently defined as what was intended or signified by the participant with regard to their activity participation.
Lastly, I added a separate column for my own reflections and note taking that was helpful for the analytic process. This phase of analysis was used to develop chapter 3 and also influenced the findings reported in chapters 4, 5 and 6. Please see Appendix D for an example of this step. In step three of the first phase of analysis textual and structural descriptions were integrated to arrive at an understanding of the essence of the phenomenon.
This was accomplished through writing selected individual experiential structures and by applying a hermeneutic lens and staying as close to the participants? This phase of analysis was guided by the work of Giorgi and Giorgi, The rewriting process required at this step considered context, language, and participants? The goal was to render explicit the implicit meanings and describe the intentions that are within each meaning unit while at the same time preserving the language used by participants.
As a result of this phase of analysis, I categorized activity participation for all participants. These findings are presented in chapter 3. This phase also involved cross-participant comparison to facilitate understanding the shared experience of meaning in activity and meaning in life for three participants. This allowed me to gain a deeper and more nuanced understanding of activity participation and their meanings within the context of participants? Chapter 3 provides a novel approach to mapping activities within context for people who live with schizophrenia over time.
Van Manen advises that the theme is the way in which the researcher can grasp the phenomena; it provides structure and description to the experience and is a reduction of the entire meaning of experience. This second phase of analysis required me to re-immerse myself in the data; to sit with it and mull over the transcripts once more.
As before the question asked of the data was what activities do participants engage in and what are the meanings of these activities for them? This phase of the analysis also considered the experience of moving forward into possibilities. Phase two of the analysis provided a more nuanced understanding of data and a hermeneutical interpretation. I read through the interviews again and tried to create a? The next phase began by isolating thematic statements. For example, some passages were immediately compelling such as when Jonathan described how he felt after watching pornographic movies, how Painter talked about creating art and how Athena experienced being stuck on weekends.
These passages were particularly compelling because of the emotion attached to their delivery. Some passages drew me in because they were surprising such as when Hammy announced he likened himself to a broken machine. I was also drawn to Robert? He asserts that by retracing the original meaning it may enliven the original meaning of every day words and convey a deeper understanding of the phenomenon. For example, van Manen traces the original meaning of care to sorrow, worries, anxiety and also, a sense of? He offers that in the case of caring for a child one tactfully18 both relieves them of worry and yet empowers them to be and become.
In this instance, tactful concern or care therefore requires both a relief of burden and a sense of empowerment. In a similar way he recommends searching for idiomatic phrases as ordinary language is a? For example, Jonathan who was working as a waiter says,? This phrasing captures a sense of anticipation; he could be fired at any moment. The phrase carries a sense that Jonathan has little control over his situation and that he is trying to carry on without being singled out or seen.
It also reveals that he is unsure what to do if something goes wrong, that being fired is a constant threat and being watched makes him anxious. Van Manen asserts that these latter techniques of attending to language are often neglected but are valuable sources for understanding the nature of phenomena. At this point I considered five interrelated themes regarding meaning in activity including; 1 citizenship for belonging, 2 building skills and capacities, 3 managing illness and striving for well-being, 4 existential meanings and finally, 5 values-based activities.
Over time the first two and the final two themes each merged into one more connected theme. I began drawing 18 By? According to Gadamer tact is said to be tacit and unformulable , p. I extracted passages from the data that spoke to these themes into new documents and placed them in ways that made sense under the themes for all participants, using a flipchart. Several passages needed editing in terms of punctuation in preparation for the findings chapters and this was done while maintaining both the essence and words of the original account.
These actions allowed me to reflect in and be able to see the data in different ways and allowed me to uncover meanings that may have otherwise remained hidden. During this process, parts of the data were separated and brought back to the whole and presented in thematic form. For example, Peter compared his building experience to that of his father who built his childhood home. The notion of being staggered or the sense of being bodily pushed or?
The final step in the second analysis process was determining essential themes. In this study these themes are presented in findings chapters 4, 5 and 6 and each chapter builds on the content of the previous chapter. Three interrelated themes are identified and discussed and the parts are related to the whole and the significant question for the study is related to specific findings. Van Manen attests to the value of consulting other phenomenological sources to?
During this phase I also consulted numerous phenomenological texts to further appreciate how other researchers approached the analysis and writing process. I am grateful to other scholars for encouraging me to stretch my descriptive analysis and helping me define my own style as I wrote and rewrote text as part of the interpretive process.
Throughout the analysis phases I continued to dialogue with research participants, my PhD committee members, several clinicians, fellow graduate students, and individuals who live with schizophrenia though face-to-face conversations and reading individual accounts. My PhD committee members offered timely and frequent feedback with regard to my analysis and my attempts to represent 43 the findings. For example, at one point a committee member advised that I ask about the experience of boredom and I invited some participants to share such experiences; this new question enriched the data analysis.
Another committee member questioned the need to retain two separate themes i. Throughout the interviews and during the analysis and writing of findings I continued to engage in the task of reflexivity, making visible positions of power that may have influenced the co-construction of the data and findings please see next section for further reflection. As mentioned, participants were invited to provide comments regarding the initial descriptions either verbally in person during each interview or in writing by mail.
I compiled an individualized sheet of activity participation and meaning statements summarizing each participant? The feedback served as an opportunity to deepen my interpretations and or extend accounts. During both phases of the analysis and in keeping with critical advice gleaned from van Manen? In summary, during the analysis phase I attempted to demonstrate different experiences of meaning in activity for participants as they engaged in their daily activities.
I have been described as being positive or optimistic and this worldview may have lead me to illuminate the more positive aspects of activity participation. However, as participants shared their stories and these were analyzed it became clear that participants' experiences of activity participation were greyer.
In other words, many participants experienced angst, exclusion and boredom while at the same time experiencing passion, a sense of desired risk and commitment to their activities. The kaleidoscope of possibilities regarding methodological approaches that draw from phenomenology as a philosophy is both exciting and overwhelming.
Because it is a road less traveled, establishing rigorous analytic methods remains a challenge Park Lala, I found that bringing together different theoretical lenses that provided foci to deepen the analysis also provided a challenge to represent the data as a coherent whole. Some of these foci included privileging the experience of living 44 with schizophrenia and engaging in activities, considering occupational dimensions of doing, being, belonging and becoming and van Manen?
Integrating these lenses during the analysis took time and will likely engage my thinking for years to come. As I reflect on this process there may have been a way to do this more expediently. Yet, I believe that phenomenology can contribute much to scholarship and practice for people who receive services and their loved ones. Researchers often do not commit themselves? In effect, establishing trustworthiness for qualitative research is similar in intent but differs in both the approach and the criteria used in comparison to those used traditionally for quantitative research i.
For example, Lieblich et al.
This study had the benefit of a series of mini-audits carried out in detail with two PhD committee members and more generally with all four committee members. On the advice of van Manen who recommends researchers consult with other phenomenological works and in an effort to establish criteria for this study, I turned to the recent work of other scholars who focus specifically on meaning in activity e. These scholars confirmed similar challenges with regard to adapting existing criteria to establish rigor for phenomenological research. To that end, I have chosen to use the five criteria suggested by Park Lala designed for used in phenomenology.
Please see Table 1. Included four successive interviews with 10 participants over a period of two years. Interviews occurred in various locations? Each successive interview built on data from previous interviews? Lapsed time between interviews provided time to accommodate for new horizons of understanding. Transparency of the research process Allows readers to judge if interpretive findings are appropriate given the context in which the research occurred p.
Participants were invited to provide comments regarding the initial descriptions of activity participation. I documented the research setting and how, where and with whom activities took place in field notes. I also situated myself in the research and laid open the study? Rich descriptions demonstrated how phenomena of interest were analyzed and interpreted.
Study benefited from guidance from my PhD committee Phenomenological nod is? Allowing the participant to continue a conversation uninterrupted and summarizing their accounts using shared language prompted even deeper descriptions? One committee member who read these findings said? I can see myself in the findings? Another committee member acknowledged that the findings are also relevant to people who may not live with schizophrenia March 25, One study participant noted that showing that people who live with schizophrenia can have a good life?
It remains to be seen if that is the case for participants and readers. I made every effort to accomplish this sense of resonance with the findings in how I represented them by using participants intentions as I understood them and own words. Adopting a critical perspective within phenomenology involves illuminating and critically reflecting on? This inquiry was not intended to be exclusively emancipatory however the following points demonstrate ways in which a critical perspective was taken up.
This study added to the person-centered perspective on meaning in activity for people who live with schizophrenia which is a perspective often excluded from research Smith, This study challenges the assumption is that people who live with schizophrenia may not be in a position to contribute to research findings in meaningful ways.
I adopted a critical reflective lens as I reflected on my pre-understandings, my situatedness in the world and my actions and was keenly aware of positions of power in particular during the interviews and when representing accounts and findings please see reflexivity section for particulars. Through accounts I became more acutely aware of participants experiences of poverty and they ways in which government policy is not responsive to the episodic nature of schizophrenia. This finding highlights assumptions implied in policy regulations that further financially marginalize people who live with schizophrenia.
As noted by Park Lala Applying this critical lens will continue as others read this account and consider if the research has been a rigorous endeavor. Fruitfulness of the findings: Are the interpretive insights useful? The fact that phenomenological findings may not be generalizable however does not mean that they may not have fruitful, transferable or practical implications? The implications for practice as identified in this thesis are based specifically on the data i.
These implications may be transferable to other contexts such as the need for disability benefits systems in general to be more responsive to the needs of people who live with episodic illnesses i. Research participants provided insights into the importance of considering meaningful activity in mental health practice. This finding is directly applicable to practice and relates to a recommendation to help people receiving services map their activity participation and the meaning of their activities.
This practical application may help people receiving services to more actively consider both the meaning they experience with regard to activity participation and possibilities for their future activity participation to enhance their well-being. Early phenomenologists were critical of the way in which knowledge was generated and wanted to see phenomena in a new light i.
One of several new insights for me was how deeply suicide touched so many participants either directly or indirectly. This allows the study findings to move from an emic19 perspective to an etic perspective. Notably, van Manen, indicates that the ultimate aim of phenomenological research is,? It may be a challenge to set criteria for this lofty aim however, perhaps in the phenomenological nod one can begin to connect with the humanity of the other in ways that affirm there is no us and them when it comes to living with a mental health issue Krupa, In summary, a review of recent criteria used to evaluate trustworthiness in phenomenological studies was presented.
Five new criteria offered by Park Lala for assessing quality in phenomenological research were applied to this study and a critique was offered. Criteria include the comprehensiveness of the data, transparency of the research process, the phenomenological nod, a critically reflexive lens, and the fruitfulness of the findings. These criteria proved to be helpful in considering the rigor of this study. In conclusion, this chapter outlined the methodological and theoretical perspectives that informed this work. This was followed by a brief description of phenomenological methodology and three key phenomenological philosophers were introduced along with a theoretical perspective offering an embodied approach to phenomenology.
A description of the study methods followed outlining the design of the study, including recruiting, interviewing and analyzing procedures. Ethical considerations were reviewed and trustworthiness of the study was discussed using five new criteria offered by Park Lala In the following findings chapters the discussion is centered on activities and their meanings for participants as they engage in their daily activities.
Meaning and Daily Activities in Context20? The meaning of life-events is intensely personal and idiosyncratic, understandable only in terms life-course and the context of each individual? Introduction This chapter has three sections. It begins with a brief introduction to the 10 study participants and their key activities followed by a detailed review of activity participation for participants using activity codes published by Statistics Canada , cited in Statistics Canada, See Appendix E for a table of categorization of activity participation for all participants.
The aim is to show how productive activities defined in section 3. The third and final section of this chapter presents activity patterns and meanings for three individuals during the two years of data collection also see Appendix G for activity maps. Each section in this chapter moves from a descriptive stance to a more interpretative approach to data analysis.
The aim of this chapter is to provide a foundation for understanding the meaning of activities from the perspective of people who live with schizophrenia. A brief introduction to participants The following section begins by providing a table of participant demographics that may be a helpful reference for the reader.
In summary, four women and six men ranging in age from 31 years to 55 years of age participated in the study. Most participants were single, three were divorced and one was married. All but one graduated high school, six attended some college and two participants had university degrees. Table 2 is followed by individual profiles that are intended to provide a brief introduction to each participant in order for the reader to get a sense of who each participant is, and the kinds of activities that each participant engages in, and are important to them.
Of note, in congruence with a Husserlain descriptive approach I chose the accompanying pictures to help to visually represent a key activity for each participant. Her brother also studied the same course and they were the first of their family to attend university. I will refer to her field as surgery as the procedures involved require a high level of precision, commitment and intellect. Athena points out that one aspect unique to her chosen profession is that the majority of graduates are men.
Athena longed for adventure and came to Canada in her twenties and was diagnosed soon afterward. Her father also lives with schizophrenia and she worried about her increased risk of developing schizophrenia as a young person. When we first met, Athena was recovering from a recent episode of illness at least six months prior to engaging in the study. In addition, about one year prior to the study she had separated from a long-term relationship. I began to get to know this person as someone who was busy and accustomed to a high level of activity engagement.
At the beginning of the study she was seeking employment in her chosen profession and in the meantime was working several odd jobs and feeling somewhat? Weekends were particularly difficult for her and she identified that this was partly because her well-established routines or schedule disintegrated over these two days. Athena described that when she has no structure or goal she would retire to bed. Athena engaged in a range of activities throughout the study and was passionate about school and her volunteer contribution in developing a women?
She also liked driving. She rises at five thirty am, washes, eats, goes to work, returning home by eight p. She will prepare some food for the evening and the next day. She may watch a pre-recorded educational TV show while eating and retires by ten p. Weekends are not a problem anymore. Oh, now I have things to do?? I have a mission? Born one of five children on Vancouver Island he came to the city in his late teens. Up to that point he had worked on local farms while in high school and he particularly liked machines. Hammy described his most fun and satisfying experience as rebuilding a car in high school with his friend.
He also was a keen athlete and was invited to? He declined this offer, as he wanted to get married and have children. Hammy made some friends on the university campus where he was being treated for his first break. At that time he also became more attracted to drugs and alcohol. He subsequently travelled within central Canada and was incarcerated for three years. He then lived in a regional psychiatric hospital for about the same time span. Hammy has a girlfriend of 11 years , takes a harm reduction approach to his drug use and attends programs for his mental and physical health.
Hammy also lives with a diagnosis of AIDS and recalls experiencing several head injuries. He describes himself as? Hammy enjoys the social aspect of volunteering, walking in his neighborhood and attending health appointments. He especially looks forward to spending time with his girlfriend. He is keen to reduce the frequency with which he uses drugs and spends time counting his days clean.
He wakes at nine a. He may walk around collecting cans, earning up to two dollars per day though will not go? In the afternoon he returns to program for medications, then he visits to the mental health team, returning home afterward. He will line up for supper which may take up to two hours but he usually figures out how to make this a minute activity.
With food in hand ne makes his way home to eat and may retire to bed at about nine pm. Jonathan has been living in the same government subsidized apartment for over 20 years and likes how neighborhood is familiar to him. He grew up in the greater Vancouver area in a blended family with parents who were of European decent and two stepsiblings. He has a large extended family and a new but good connection with one stepbrother and one aunt whom he sees occasionally.
Jonathan finished high school and worked in the service industry for a short time. He then began drinking briefly. He attends a mental health team regularly and describes spending much of his day in his apartment? Some of his neighbors are loud and intrusive and he feels he is? Approximately two years before the study commenced he began to work and volunteer it was 20 years since he worked leading him forward to what he calls a more? He may then attend a health appointment or may look around the shops. In the afternoon he will talk with his mum and may watch a DVD and eat leftovers.
In the evening he will go on the internet, watch TV and or listen to music. He usually talks to mum again before cleaning his lenses, and then goes to bed around eleven pm. He remarks that he has a lot of time on his hands and spends most his day at home or watching television, on his computer, listening to music, getting ready for work or dealing with his neighbors. When he is out of the house he attends appointments or goes window shopping or, something he calls? I feel like I? He describes that his disability pension and subsequent lack of money may have contributed to him not being able to meet people and make friends.
Despite wanting to she feels she cannot work as she does not want to lose her pension benefits. She misses not being able to work in her chosen profession in special education. Lisa grew up in the countryside of British Columbia and met her husband at narcotics anonymous NA. Lisa is proud about being clean for nine years. Lisa remains committed to her participation in narcotics anonymous and debtors anonymous DA and feels that these self-help groups offer her a spiritual connection to others and to herself.
She was diagnosed with schizophrenia seven years ago which resulted in her being less able to engage in the social aspects of NA and DA. Her private psychiatrist worked with her to find the right medication, an arduous process that took two years. Lisa describes herself as an artist, makes her own greeting cards and spends time at least once monthly with her husband visiting a local artist community. She likes being in this community as the pace of life appeals to her and there are always some new artistic things on offer to engage with.
Here she spends time with her husband Lisa feels? She wants to buy good quality, stylish clothing so she is not always reminded of her schizophrenia. Lisa rises at three am, has breakfast and speaks to a Narcotics Anonymous NA colleague. She may return to bed at seven am till midday or one pm, then showers and gets something to eat. She might leave the house but is rarely ready to do so until three or four in the afternoon when most people are generally busy.
In the evening she naps and rises again in the late evening. When not sleeping, she makes artistic cards for friends and her husband, cooks, perhaps goes shopping and generally spends time with her husband. He also attended the same church for several years. He values his long-term relationship with both his psychiatrist and his mental health team who he continues to see bi-monthly.
He is deeply grateful to his psychiatrist who frequently consults with him about his medication and listens to his need for ongoing changes. Painter was diagnosed with schizophrenia while attending university and ended up in the forensic system for a short time. He is the second of seven children and stays in contact with his parents and some of his siblings weekly.
He describes having a? He discovered painting when he was young, quit for almost 20 years as he found it too competitive. However, he returned to this activity almost seven years ago and now paints for five to seven hours almost daily. Painter believes artists see everyday things a little differently and values this?
He describes that good art has capacity to help one grow, as it is dynamic. As a spiritual person he describes that he is happy about where he is at in his life. He believes that life is not long and that we should simplify it Pa 1. He likes his structured routine that allows him to accomplish his daily goals. Being busy is also a distraction from the illness Pa 3.
Painter has recently enjoyed some acclaim with writing. Generally, he structures his days and weeks. He rises at 7: He may visit a friend and do tai-chi and may phone a family member. He usually cooks for himself in the evening and retires to bed by 10 pm. Monday he draws, attends tai-chi on Tuesday afternoon and attends a walking group on Wednesday P 1.
Thursday he volunteers with the animals, Friday is with a spiritual group. On Sunday, he focuses on tai-chi again which he believes keeps him active. He has been living in the west end of the city in the same home for about fifteen years and he enjoys the location though he is sad to see the changes in recent years established businesses are closing in favor of new more modern ones.
He misses his two favourite local restaurants that closed recently where he used to write daily. His dad was a? Tragically, Peter lost his dad at the age of eleven. A big part of Peter? A self-described spiritual seeker, who is deeply committed to gaining positive mental and physical health he wants to live a long life. Peter is keen not to fit into the category of people who die fifteen years earlier as a result of having schizophrenia.
He offers with humor? I plan to live forever or die in the attempt? Peter lives in a way that is congruent with his values i. He is interested in developing his intellectual and spiritual self and cares about how he spends his time. In other words, he does activities that have meaning for him as opposed to doing activities that just simply keep him busy. Twice weekly he cares for his mum and spends one night a week in her home. On other days he is seated at a local coffee shop by 7: He may have some breakfast there and may stay for two hours. Much of his day is spent in coffee shops writing and socializing.
He exercises five times per week. In the evening he may read. He retires to bed by nine or Although he cooked often in the past he is not interested in cooking now. He eats prepared food at the restaurant, or at home he keeps staples that are raw and easily prepared. He relies on nutritional supplements to support his diet although they are prohibitively expensive. She receives a weekly allowance of five dollars from her parents in payment for doing chores. She also works occasionally in the family business and recently started working a half day per week in a grocery store.
Rebel Girl came to Canada with her parents in her teens and is the youngest of three children. She was identified as having a lower IQ when a teen in China and was diagnosed in Canada with schizophrenia after high school. She enrolled in two college courses and subsequently became ill. Rebel Girl does not have a bank account but would like to have money for leisure activities. She has a passion for heavy metal music.
She enjoys collecting coupons and will often have several in her pocket ready to provide them to friends who may be interested. She makes friends through attending many groups at the mental health team and other non-profit organizations for mental health. Rebel girl was the name she used in college and she associates it with a rock song. She sees herself as a heavy metal fan and would like to go to more concerts. She is attuned to music playing in the background when in public spaces and immediately lights up when she hears a heavy metal band. She is knowledgeable re the lyrics and is familiar with many of the heavy metal characters that inspire and entertain her.
She considers heavy metal enthusiasts as a tribe and is proud to belong to it. She attends the mental health team at least once weekly and at one point in the study she was working work twice to three times per week. She often has a day of rest during the week when she does not do any activities outside the home. She also had a boyfriend at the beginning of the study and would like to meet someone new. Rebel Girl would also like to cook more. She wakes at 10 am, attends to hygiene and has breakfast. She usually has a health appointment in the afternoon and returns home to set the table for dinner prepare the rice and do the dishes.
She enjoys going for a walk and watching the Chinese news with her parents. She retires to bed at 10 pm RG 2. She is clear that she needs at least 10 hours sleep RG 2. He was diagnosed with schizophrenia four years ago while his mum was dying of cancer. He regrets he was not able to be with her at that time. Robert does not see his sister often and has a guardian to help him make life style choices and financial decisions and he is grateful for this support.
Robert also lives with multiple chronic health issues such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis and a 70lb weight gain. He recently stopped smoking and attends the gym when he can.
He has been living in the west end of the city in the same home for about fifteen years and he enjoys the location though he is sad to see the changes in recent years established businesses are closing in favor of new more modern ones. Introduction This chapter presents the methodological and theoretical perspectives informing the research process and will outline the study methods. Cognition, Emotion, Ability, Function Online. Research participants provided insights into the importance of considering meaningful activity in mental health practice. What participants do The previous section briefly introduced the participants in the hope that the reader could begin to situate the activities and meanings for participants. Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants.
He likes food and in particular some specialty foods from his home country. He also enjoys joining friends for traditional karaoke sessions. Robert values the support of peer support workers and attends his mental health team once or twice weekly. Robert has three friends whom he sees often. He enjoys reading and watching sports. Robert sees himself as a? He takes his recovery seriously. He had a medication change recently, and was subsequently unable to participate in his usual activities.
He is beginning to feel stronger and finds he is sleeping less. He tries to pace himself and tries to see someone in the day. He graduated from peer support training and is hoping to find a job. Robert would like to be more active, manage his schizophrenia and diabetes well, and have a job with computers, more friends and a girlfriend. Robert attended college for a short period and would like to return. He has breakfast, takes medications and works at his computer. He eats microwave pasta for lunch and may see a friend or watch TV and then he will work on the computer playing strategy games with people.
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He may visit someone in the complex, may watch some TV or get on the internet and then go to bed about 10 or 11 pm. He either attends appointments, or meets friends, or grocery shops daily. Born in Hong Kong he is one of three children. Sam describes how his parents constantly pressured him to succeed in school.
Sam became an engineer, however, is unable to work in this capacity in this country and is not sure he could manage the work at this time. Sam was diagnosed soon after arriving in Canada and was temporarily connected with the legal system. He described losing his skills and confidence when he became unwell. He feels that having schizophrenia?
Sam recently moved into supportive housing with roommates and is interested in cooking again. He attends a mental health clubhouse in the community five days per week and describes is as being an important source of activity participation for him by offering opportunities for working, skill development and socializing. If Sam is not attending the clubhouse he will sleep during the day at home. Sam mentions that when he first came to Canada that it was very stressful.
He remembers that he? He did try to return to college but found it to be too much. He likes to have something to do and be with people. He is grateful to receive the disability benefits and as a result of having these things in his life he is? Giving back is important to him and he enjoys supporting other people at his local clubhouse. Sam remains deeply connected with his mother and his birthplace. Sam saves his BC Person with Disability benefit in order to visit his home every second year.
He dreams of having a new family and a? Sam usually rises at about 10 am and has a shower. At the clubhouse he will have lunch, chat, attend a meeting, work as a janitor or peer support worker, or may go out with the walking group. He visits his daughter twice weekly. He usually chats to his mum for an hour in the evening on the computer. He may then read the news and surf the internet for a couple of hours. He goes bed about 10 pm. Her parents are Chinese and she grew up as the oldest of five children in Vietnam.
She came to Canada in her early teens and graduated with a Diploma in Computers in central Canada. Sylvie moved to Vancouver with her husband and was diagnosed with schizophrenia after one year of marriage. Sylvie would like to spend time with her daughter but is aware that her daughter needs to build her own life with her own friends. Sylvie is hopeful that as her daughter matures that they will grow closer and spend more time together.
Sylvie works four days per week. She continues to negotiate with her husband about spousal support and this remains a significant stressor in her life as she did declare bankruptcy in the last five years. Sylvie loves clothes and always likes to look her best. Sylvie likes to be occupied and likes to learn useful things. She is very happy to be working, as she really did not think she could accomplish this challenge.
Routine and schedules are important aspects of her life in particular with regard to cooking and cleaning. I always need to put something in my schedule? If she does not have anything scheduled she may retire to bed for the day. She generally cooks one or two times weekly and will bring her main meal to work each day. She says she does not mind eating the same food several days in succession. However, when in out in the community Sylvie demonstrates an adventurous spirit and likes to try new foods and go to new places. She has just discovered the desire to travel and has started to visit the casino with her friend.
She would like more activities to participate in and more friends to do those activities with. Sylvie usually rises between seven and 8: After dressing and doing her make-up she catches the bus. She will have lunch at two and go for a walk at for the later part of lunchtime. After work she usually attends night school and is home about nine pm.
She generally has dinner, listens to music and does homework at the same time, and goes to bed about What participants do The previous section briefly introduced the participants in the hope that the reader could begin to situate the activities and meanings for participants.
This section of the chapter first outlines the kinds of activities participants described during our interviews and subsequently maps these activities using activity codes published by Statistics Canada developed in Statistics Canada, The original purpose of the TWAS was to provide a means to better understand time spent by Canadians in both paid and unpaid work i. Because this book is already available FREE for you. Simply by downloading and storing it on the device on your device. Do not miss reading books Title: And others he'll long to forget. Big Trouble PDF by Please click button to get PDF Title: Big Trouble ePub book now.
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