Russell's paradox , which shows that the notion of the set of all those sets that do not contain themselves leads to a contradiction, was instrumental in the development of modern logic and set theory. Thought-experiments can also yield interesting paradoxes. The grandfather paradox , for example, would arise if a time-traveler were to kill his own grandfather before his mother or father had been conceived, thereby preventing his own birth. This is a specific example of the more general observation of the butterfly effect , or that a time-traveller's interaction with the past — however slight — would entail making changes that would, in turn, change the future in which the time-travel was yet to occur, and would thus change the circumstances of the time-travel itself.
Often a seemingly paradoxical conclusion arises from an inconsistent or inherently contradictory definition of the initial premise.
In the case of that apparent paradox of a time-traveler killing his own grandfather, it is the inconsistency of defining the past to which he returns as being somehow different from the one which leads up to the future from which he begins his trip, but also insisting that he must have come to that past from the same future as the one that it leads up to. Quine distinguished between three classes of paradoxes: Chesterton , among many others. But one must not think ill of the paradox, for the paradox is the passion of thought, and the thinker without the paradox is like the lover without passion: But the ultimate potentiation of every passion is always to will its own downfall, and so it is also the ultimate passion of the understanding to will the collision, although in one way or another the collision must become its downfall.
This, then, is the ultimate paradox of thought: A paradoxical reaction to a drug is the opposite of what one would expect, such as becoming agitated by a sedative or sedated by a stimulant. Some are common and are used regularly in medicine, such as the use of stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also known as ADHD while others are rare and can be dangerous as they are not expected, such as severe agitation from a benzodiazepine.
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Retrieved 21 June Toward a theory of paradox: A dynamic equilibrium model of organizing. Academy of Management Review, 36, pp.
Paradoxical leader behaviors in people management: Academy of Management Journal, 58, pp. Waldman and David E. Journal of College Science Teaching. Russia has never fully confronted this dark history. The way we look at history is always shaded by our own background.
With every narrative, we have to ask: What are we looking at? Whose story is being told?
And from whose perspective has that story been recorded? Now on show at the Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam.
Notes from Aleppo New episode every two weeks View project. Paradox Interactive has generally focused on publishing " grand strategy games ", i. Almost all Paradox games have historical settings and demonstrate a reasonable commitment to historical accuracy.
Ask the Editors Word of the Year: Our Word of the Year justice , plus 10 more. Retrieved 13 February What made you want to look up paradox? Learn More about paradox. Recent Examples on the Web The model, Garrett says, is a sort of built version of this paradox , both a place and a representation of a place, separate but inextricably linked.
Paradox Interactive games are also characteristically complex, with highly detailed gameplay models and consequently steep learning curves. Paradox tries to make games that are open and easy to edit moddable , from tweaking a saved game to creating an entirely new scenario.
Modding can be accomplished with simple tools and basic knowledge of scripting. To assist modders to figure out how to edit the game on their own, the Paradox forums provide fan-compiled libraries of "how to" advice. Due to this, each game has a very large number of mods, ranging from minor additions to complete system overhauls.
Along with grand strategy games, Paradox's catalog also has come to include simulation and management games , such as the Cities in Motion series and Cities: Skylines , and computer role-playing games such as Pillars of Eternity. The publisher has ventured into other genres in the period between and , but have since shifted focus back to these three core areas; according to Shams Jorjani, the vice president of business development, "We had this vision of people buying a Paradox game without knowing what the game was; that 'Paradox' should be a guarantee for a type of game experience".
Magicka had been successful, so between and , the publisher greenlit a number of different titles from across a number of genres, which, on retrospective, the publisher found that they could not properly manage or promote well, leading them to limit themselves to three core genres. Video game music composer Andreas Waldetoft frequently composes the soundtracks for Paradox Interactive's games. In January , White Wolf announced its partnership with video game publisher Focus Home Interactive for the video game adaptation of Werewolf: The Apocalypse , a tabletop role-playing game set in the World of Darkness.
The game will be developed by the game development studio Cyanide and released on PC and consoles. Paradox is known to support games following their release with a long tail of updates to their games often several years after release.
Some of these are free updates or DLC s, many add large game changing elements to the game and the way it is played.