There are no experts in this work. Our job is to be a presence, rather than a savior. A companion, rather than a leader. A friend, rather than a teacher. The Companioning Model of Bereavement caregiving developed by Dr. He tells us that observance comes to us from ritual. The heart of grief counseling, according to Dr. Ken Doka, writer and lecturer in grief and loss, is validation. Grieving individuals need reassurance that what they are experiencing is normal. Counselors can help people understand and identify the ways they are reacting. Some people grieve through their expression of feelings.
Others grieve through problem-solving, thinking, and activities. Doka, in a recent presentation , maintains that there are many different ways in which individuals experience, express and adapt to loss. Section 2, Helping Skills for the Outreach Worker. These skills are ways to show people that you are paying close attention, that you care, and that you are actively listening.
The better the helper listens, the more the individual may share. This is a caring relationship and develops through mutual respect.
The feeling must be named. This may be through the actual words of the individual or through observation of non-verbal communication eyes, facial expression, posture, voice tone. The grief experience impacts all aspects of the being of the individual. The manifestations listed are more intensified when there has been a sudden, unanticipated death.
With the intensification, the period of time to process the reactions will often be longer. It is important to remember there is no timetable for processing. People are not only grieving, they are also participating in life and those stressors will affect the journey of adaptation. An individual may not experience all reactions that are listed. Reactions may change over time. What needs to be noted is that the reactions follow the loss event; it is then that a grief reaction is considered.
Because the loss event changes the individual, behaviors, whether while alone or in social settings, also reflect the change the individual is experiencing. The experience of grief and the mourning process involves many changes in the life of the individual. Therefore, it is the whole person that faces this forced change. Individuals seek support and encouragement as they find their way through this maze. Adapting takes as long at it needs to take. Some issues that lead to complications in reconciling the loss include the following. During the mourning period, the grieving individual not only focuses energy toward the deceased, but must adapt the self to changes and continue life incorporating the loss —the good and bad—of the relationship.
What is truly lost is examined; what roles, expectations, opportunities and hopes must be given up; and what personal adjustments must be made all comprise the transitional aspects of the grieving process. Each secondary loss perceived requires its own grief response. The following is a list of some identified aspects of the loss that may be perceived as part of the unique process.
One can see there are many issues that may be part of any loss, but are often an immediate aspect of sudden death loss. The world in all its day-to-day intricacies is impacted. Awareness of the perceptions of the one in grief is important in providing emotional support and in companioning this individual through the intense response to a reconciliation of the loss. There is often intense yearning for what was as well as much frustration and anger for the way life IS.
Those counseling or assisting in any way must be aware of the normalcy of the protest. It is often during this change into the new normal that survivors feel they will forget the loved one. They need reassurance that forgetting need not happen as they continue on their life journey. Developing a balanced view of the individual—their strengths and weaknesses—is important. We are a product of our experiences and these need not die when a participant in that event dies. Grieving individuals may need to be encouraged to:. All of the above are intended to reinforce that the loved one has become a part of us due to the relationship experienced.
Rituals provide us with acts to engage in for the purpose of meaning-making Neimeyer. Kenneth Doka discusses ritual as giving extraordinary meaning to the commonplace. Ritual provides symbolic connection to the lost persons. Only a few people in the family enjoy this dish but she continues to prepare it because during the preparation she feels connected to her mother and feels her mother is within her and thus, present at the holiday. Kenneth Doka has identified four functions of ritual that may help in a variety of situations:.
Rituals must fit the story. They must be planned ahead and thoroughly processed after completion. Certain dates are particularly troubling and anxiety producing for the bereaved. These include birthdays, anniversaries, holidays, religious celebrations, Valentines Day, anniversary of the death and other specific family markers. The goal is to plan ahead a remembrance ritual in order to acknowledge the day both cognitively and symbolically.
Utilizing any of the above mentioned rituals will help acknowledge in some personal way the relationship and life that was shared. The day is best confronted and dealt with through ritual rather than avoided. Following is a list of rituals. Rituals are effective and meaningful when they have significance to the deceased and to the survivor. The following are merely suggestions and might be altered and enhanced to appropriately accommodate the relationship involved. There is literature on the market focusing on gender differences in processing a loss event.
These may be helpful, but often give a stereotyped view of gender in the grief process. There is no right or wrong way to grieve. Helping individuals find successful methods can be part of the companioning model previously explained. For some the event is beyond words or expression and is felt deeply. This must not be misconstrued as cold or unfeeling.
The person may not be ready to live with the reality once it is expressed openly.
Make eye contact and vary your eye contact. Noah added it Jan 11, Published September 1st by Gurian Institute Press. Enjoy a toast to your loved one on a birthday, anniversary or holiday. Companioning is about discovering the gifts of sacred silence; it is not about filling every painful moment with words. By Art Markman Ph.
Patterns, according to Doka, occur along a continuum. One pattern may be more pronounced than another depending upon the loss and the personal connection to that loss. This pattern suggests a need for even more choices among adaptive strategies than for the griever who is more fixed in either strategy mentioned above. Gender may contribute to a particular style due to socialization rather than gender itself.
One needs to carefully consider the style of the individual and support it. Accordingly, know there is not a right or wrong way—just the way this individual must process this particular loss. Some individuals have never dealt with a sudden death, so the way to grieve and adapt to the loss is unfamiliar to them.
Patience is important; support and encouragement for where the individual is at any particular time after the loss is important. Personality and style are important—some people are less verbal than others; others think things through before reacting. Some go right into a task and take control of a situation, while others react emotionally first then gather themselves for action. Burnout occurs in any helping situation when there is too much work and too little support for the caregivers. If burnout is to be avoided, support must be available to the helpers through regular supervision and through sharing their work with other helpers.
Group support is nurturing and can renew commitment to loss and bereavement work. Each worker must find what works best to help him or her keep in touch with self. Walks, family and free time, prayer, meditation, exercise, cooking, gardening, and yoga can serve as opportunities for a breathing spell from work.
Daily rituals and routines can help to ground helpers for the work ahead each day. Lighting a candle daily before beginning work, meditating, or reading a particularly meaningful passage can help center us. Perhaps bringing a few pillows or lighting a small candle can be enough to support a sense of solidness and centeredness.
The Heart of Grief: Death and the Search for Lasting Love. Learning to Live with Unresolved Grief. New Directions, Challenges, and Strategies for Practice. The Traumatology of Grieving. The Gift of the Masculine Side of Healing. Loss of the Assumptive World: A Theory of Traumatic Loss. A New Understanding of Grief.
Transcending Gender Stereotypes of Grief. Brunner and Mazel PA. The Healing Journey Through Grief: Your Journal for Reflection and Recovery. Association of Death Education and Counseling. Your browser does not support iFrames. Section 1 Bereavement Counseling — A Framework Elizabeth Kubler-Ross has taught us that we must see the bereaved people we serve and counsel as our teachers. John Welshons, in his fine book entitled Awakening from Grief, states: Companioning is about honoring the spirit; it is not about focusing on the intellect.
Companioning is about curiosity; it is not about expertise. Companioning is about learning from others; it is not about teaching them. Companioning is about walking alongside; it is not about leading. Companioning is about being still; it is not about frantic movement forward. Companioning is about discovering the gifts of sacred silence; it is not about filling every painful moment with words.
Companioning is about listening with the heart; it is not about analyzing with the head. Companioning is about bearing witness to the struggles of others; it is not about directing those struggles. Companioning is about going to the wilderness of the soul with another human being; it is not about thinking you are responsible for finding the way out. Helps disaster survivors recognize that, in most cases, their emotional reactions are natural, normal, and to be expected.
Assists survivors to reduce additional stress by organizing and prioritizing day-today and recovery-related tasks. Helps individuals to understand and recognize the wide range of reactions to trauma, such as numbness, frustration, confusion, anger, anxiety, sadness, and feelings of helplessness. Assists individuals to draw on their own strengths and develop healthy coping mechanisms that permit them to gradually resume their pre-disaster level of functioning. Sensitively and caringly helps individuals to grieve their losses in their own unique ways.
Systematically draws upon an array of recovery resources for appropriate referrals. Section 2, Helping Skills for the Outreach Worker These skills are ways to show people that you are paying close attention, that you care, and that you are actively listening. Eye Contact and Facial Expression: Make eye contact and vary your eye contact. Allow your face to reflect caring. Avoid any gestures that hide your face from view.
Be attentive and relaxed, and use positive gestures. Use a natural vocal style. Your voice communicates emotions. Speak in a relaxed, warm manner. Our offices, clinics, and schools are often set up for sitting quietly in a chair, rather than for physical movement, hands-on learning, thematic therapy, and other male-healthy strategies.
Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Michael Gurian is the New York Times bestselling author A Practitioner's Guide To Working With Boys and Men in Therapeutic Settings - Kindle edition by Michael Gurian. Download it once and read it on. How Do I Help Him?: A Practitioner's Guide to Working with Boys and Men in Therapeutic Settings Paperback – September 1, by Michael Gurian (Author ).
And to make matters more murky, our professional dialogue in workshops and training often veers away from what boys and men need for fear of focusing on males to the detriment of females. The book is gender equal and female positive. It includes new logic models and practical tools and strategies that will transform your private practice, office, agency, residential treatment facility, or other mental health care environment. These new models and tools do not replace present psychological theories, but instead blend with prevailing psychological theories to help ensure their effectiveness with boys and men.
The lives of boys and girls and women and men are inextricably linked, and ever more so as our culture evolves. To take better care of boys and men is to help girls and women flourish, as well. Michael Gurian , michaelgurian comcast. As Founder of a Counseling and Treatment Center 27 years ago, I only wish this groundbreaking book had been available earlier. It provides a great weaving of stories, statistics and research. While the book was written with therapists and social workers in mind, it actually helps anyone who wants a richer understanding of gender.