La perspective analytique ainsi retenue se justifie triplement. Mais on sait la force du sens commun et le besoin pour les responsables politiques de nommer le mal. En guise de conclusion, il nous semble important de souligner trois cheminements possibles.
K igali Nyamirambo , le 12 septembre La courbure du dos que provoque cette action lui permet de bomber la poitrine. Il voulait avoir sous ses ordres des Blancs. Telle est la vie psychique du pouvoir colonial. Les orgies musculaires des transes? Le long de cette entaille, il faut cerner deux questions: Et ceux du Nigeria, du Togo. At the peak of its power in the 11th century, its realms extended from the Atlantic Ocean to Timbuktu. After the decline of Ghana, the Mali Empire grew into a powerful Muslim state, which reached its apogee in the early part of the 14th century.
Its slow decline starting at the end of the 14th century followed internal discord and revolts by vassal states, one of which, Songhai , flourished as an empire between the 14th and 16th centuries. Songhai was also weakened by internal discord, which led to factional warfare. This discord spurred most of the migrations southward toward the forest belt. The dense rain forest covering the southern half of the country, created barriers to the large-scale political organizations that had arisen in the north.
Inhabitants lived in villages or clusters of villages; their contacts with the outside world were filtered through long-distance traders. Villagers subsisted on agriculture and hunting. Five important states flourished in Ivory Coast during the pre-European early modern period. Although Kong became a prosperous center of agriculture, trade, and crafts, ethnic diversity and religious discord gradually weakened the kingdom.
The Abron kingdom of Gyaaman was established in the 17th century by an Akan group, the Abron, who had fled the developing Ashanti confederation of Asanteman in what is present-day Ghana. From their settlement south of Bondoukou , the Abron gradually extended their hegemony over the Dyula people in Bondoukou , who were recent arrivals from the market city of Begho.
Experts working on this field have designed the WASH concept. Angered that colonial policy favoured French plantation owners, the union members united to recruit migrant workers for their own farms. Human and income poverty, p. The treaties provided for French sovereignty within the posts, and for trading privileges in exchange for fees or coutumes paid annually to the local chiefs for the use of the land. Library of Congress Country Studies. Until , governors appointed in Paris administered the colony of Ivory Coast, using a system of direct, centralized administration that left little room for Ivoirian participation in policy-making. In November , around 10, French and other foreign nationals evacuated Ivory Coast due to attacks from progovernment youth militias.
Bondoukou developed into a major center of commerce and Islam. The kingdom's Quranic scholars attracted students from all parts of West Africa. It finally split into smaller chiefdoms. The descendants of the rulers of the Agni kingdoms tried to retain their separate identity long after Ivory Coast's independence; as late as , the Sanwi attempted to break away from Ivory Coast and form an independent kingdom. Compared to neighboring Ghana, Ivory Coast, though practicing slavery and slave raiding, suffered little from the slave trade as such. European slaving and merchant ships preferred other areas along the coast.
The earliest recorded European voyage to West Africa was made by the Portuguese in The first West African French settlement, Saint Louis , was founded in the midth century in Senegal, while at about the same time, the Dutch ceded to the French a settlement at Goree Island , off Dakar. The Europeans suppressed the local practice of slavery at this time, and forbade the trade to their merchants.
Assinie's survival was precarious, however; the French were not firmly established in Ivory Coast until the midth century. French explorers , missionaries , trading companies, and soldiers gradually extended the area under French control inland from the lagoon region.
Pacification was not accomplished until Activity along the coast stimulated European interest in the interior, especially along the two great rivers, the Senegal and the Niger.
Concerted French exploration of West Africa began in the midth century, but moved slowly, based more on individual initiative than on government policy. In the s, the French concluded a series of treaties with local West African chiefs that enabled the French to build fortified posts along the Gulf of Guinea to serve as permanent trading centres.
The first posts in Ivory Coast included one at Assinie and another at Grand Bassam, which became the colony's first capital. The treaties provided for French sovereignty within the posts, and for trading privileges in exchange for fees or coutumes paid annually to the local chiefs for the use of the land. The arrangement was not entirely satisfactory to the French, because trade was limited and misunderstandings over treaty obligations often arose.
Nevertheless, the French government maintained the treaties, hoping to expand trade. France also wanted to maintain a presence in the region to stem the increasing influence of the British along the Gulf of Guinea coast. The French built naval bases to keep out non-French traders and began a systematic pacification of the interior to stop raids on their settlements.
They accomplished this only after a long war in the s against Mandinka tribesmen, mostly from Gambia. The defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War in and the subsequent annexation by Germany of the French province of Alsace-Lorraine caused the French government to abandon its colonial ambitions and withdraw its military garrisons from its West African trading posts, leaving them in the care of resident merchants. In , to support its claims of effective occupation, France again assumed direct control of its West African coastal trading posts and embarked on an accelerated program of exploration in the interior.
By the end of the journey, he had concluded four treaties establishing French protectorates in Ivory Coast.
By the end of the s, France had established control over the coastal regions of Ivory Coast, and in Britain recognized French sovereignty in the area. Agreements with Liberia in and with Britain in determined the eastern and western boundaries of the colony, but the northern boundary was not fixed until because of efforts by the French government to attach parts of Upper Volta present-day Burkina Faso and French Sudan present-day Mali to Ivory Coast for economic and administrative reasons.
France's main goal was to stimulate the production of exports. Coffee, cocoa, and palm oil crops were soon planted along the coast. Ivory Coast stood out as the only West African country with a sizeable population of settlers; elsewhere in West and Central Africa, the French and British were largely bureaucrats.
As a result, French citizens owned one-third of the cocoa, coffee, and banana plantations and adopted the local forced-labor system. Throughout the early years of French rule, French military contingents were sent inland to establish new posts. Some of the native population and former slave-owning class resisted French settlers. Among those offering greatest resistance was Samori Ture , who in the s and s was conquering his neighbors, re-establishing slavery and founding the Wassoulou Empire , which extended over large parts of present-day Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Ivory Coast.
Samori Ture's large, well-equipped army, which could manufacture and repair its own firearms , attracted some support throughout the region from chiefs who sought to play the two sides off against each other. The French responded to Samori Ture's expansion and conquest with military pressure. French campaigns against Samori Ture, which were met with greater resistance than usual in tribal warfare, intensified in the mids until he was captured in and his empire dissolved.
France's imposition of a head tax in to support the colony's public works program provoked unexpected protests. Many Ivoirians saw the tax as a violation of the protectorate treaties because they felt that France was demanding the equivalent of a coutume from the local kings, rather than the reverse. Many, especially in the interior, also considered the tax a humiliating symbol of submission. It was a colony and an overseas territory under the Third Republic.
France's policy in West Africa was reflected mainly in its philosophy of "association", meaning that all Africans in Ivory Coast were officially French "subjects", but without rights to representation in Africa or France. French colonial policy incorporated concepts of assimilation and association. Based on the assumed superiority of French culture , in practice the assimilation policy meant the extension of French language, institutions, laws, and customs to the colonies. The policy of association also affirmed the superiority of the French in the colonies, but it entailed different institutions and systems of laws for the colonizer and the colonized.
Under this policy, the Africans in Ivory Coast were allowed to preserve their own customs insofar as they were compatible with French interests, such as the recent abolition of the slave trade. An indigenous elite trained in French administrative practice formed an intermediary group between French and Africans. After , a small number of Westernized Ivoirians were granted the right to apply for French citizenship. Most Ivoirians, however, were classified as French subjects and were governed under the principle of association.
They were drafted for work in mines, on plantations, as porters, and on public projects as part of their tax responsibility. In World War II, the Vichy regime remained in control until , when British troops invaded without much resistance. Winston Churchill gave power back to members of General Charles de Gaulle 's provisional government. French citizenship was granted to all African "subjects", the right to organize politically was recognized, and various forms of forced labor were abolished.
Between the years many national conferences and constituent assemblies took place between France's Vichy regime and provisional governments in Ivory Coast. Until , governors appointed in Paris administered the colony of Ivory Coast, using a system of direct, centralized administration that left little room for Ivoirian participation in policy-making. While British colonial administrations adopted divide-and-rule policies elsewhere, applying ideas of assimilation only to the educated elite, the French were interested in ensuring that the small but influential elite was sufficiently satisfied with the status quo to refrain from anti-French sentiment.
Although strongly opposed to the practices of association, educated Ivoirians believed that they would achieve equality with their French peers through assimilation rather than through complete independence from France. After the assimilation doctrine was implemented through the postwar reforms, though, Ivoirian leaders realized that even assimilation implied the superiority of the French over the Ivoirians.
Some of them thought that discrimination and political inequality would end only with independence; others thought the problem of the division between the tribal culture and modernity would continue. In , he formed the country's first agricultural trade union for African cocoa farmers like himself. Angered that colonial policy favoured French plantation owners, the union members united to recruit migrant workers for their own farms.
A year later, the French abolished forced labour. France appointed him as a minister, the first African to become a minister in a European government. A turning point in relations with France was reached with the Overseas Reform Act Loi Cadre , which transferred a number of powers from Paris to elected territorial governments in French West Africa and also removed the remaining voting inequities. Coffee production increased significantly, catapulting Ivory Coast into third place in world output, behind Brazil and Colombia.
By , the country was the world's leading producer of cocoa. It also became Africa's leading exporter of pineapples and palm oil. French technicians contributed to the "Ivoirian miracle". In other African nations, the people drove out the Europeans following independence, but in Ivory Coast, they poured in. The French community grew from only 30, prior to independence to 60, in , most of them teachers, managers, and advisors.
He was criticized for his emphasis on developing large-scale projects. Many felt the millions of dollars spent transforming his home village, Yamoussoukro , into the new political capital were wasted; others supported his vision to develop a centre for peace, education, and religion in the heart of the country. In the early s, the world recession and a local drought sent shock waves through the Ivoirian economy.
Due to the overcutting of timber and collapsing sugar prices, the country's external debt increased three-fold. Crime rose dramatically in Abidjan as an influx of villagers exacerbated unemployment caused by the recession. In , hundreds of civil servants went on strike, joined by students protesting institutional corruption. The unrest forced the government to support multiparty democracy. He tightened his hold over political life, jailing several hundred opposition supporters. In contrast, the economic outlook improved, at least superficially, with decreasing inflation and an attempt to remove foreign debt.
As people originating from foreign countries are a large part of the Ivoirian population, this policy excluded many people from Ivoirian nationality, and the relationship between various ethnic groups became strained, which resulted in two civil wars in the following decades. The new leadership reduced crime and corruption, and the generals pressed for austerity and campaigned in the streets for a less wasteful society. The lead-up to the election was marked by military and civil unrest. This sparked violent protests in which his supporters, mainly from the country's north, battled riot police in the capital, Yamoussoukro.
In the early hours of 19 September , while the President was in Italy, an armed uprising occurred. Troops who were to be demobilised mutinied, launching attacks in several cities. The battle for the main gendarmerie barracks in Abidjan lasted until mid-morning, but by lunchtime, the government forces had secured Abidjan. The rebels threatened to move on Abidjan again, and France deployed troops from its base in the country to stop their advance. The French said they were protecting their own citizens from danger, but their deployment also helped government forces. That the French were helping either side was not established as a fact; but each side accused the French of supporting the opposite side.
Whether French actions improved or worsened the situation in the long term is disputed.
What exactly happened that night is also disputed. Alassane Ouattara took refuge in the German embassy; his home had been burned down. President Gbagbo cut short his trip to Italy and on his return stated, in a television address, that some of the rebels were hiding in the shanty towns where foreign migrant workers lived. Gendarmes and vigilantes bulldozed and burned homes by the thousands, attacking residents.
An early ceasefire with the rebels, which had the backing of much of the northern populace, proved short-lived, and fighting over the prime cocoa-growing areas resumed.
France sent in troops to maintain the cease-fire boundaries,  and militias, including warlords and fighters from Liberia and Sierra Leone , took advantage of the crisis to seize parts of the west. In January , Gbagbo and rebel leaders signed accords creating a "government of national unity". Curfews were lifted, and French troops patrolled the western border of the country. The unity government was unstable, and central problems remained, with neither side achieving its goals.
In March , people were killed at an opposition rally, and subsequent mob violence led to the evacuation of foreign nationals. A later report concluded the killings were planned. Though UN peacekeepers were deployed to maintain a "Zone of Confidence", relations between Gbagbo and the opposition continued to deteriorate.
Early in November , after the peace agreement had effectively collapsed because the rebels refused to disarm, Gbagbo ordered airstrikes against the rebels. They responded by destroying most Ivoirian military aircraft two Su planes and five helicopters , and violent retaliatory riots against the French broke out in Abidjan. Gbagbo's original term as president expired on 30 October , but due to the lack of disarmament, an election was deemed impossible, so his term in office was extended for a maximum of one year, according to a plan worked out by the African Union and endorsed by the United Nations Security Council.
Gbagbo said the next day that elements of the resolution deemed to be constitutional violations would not be applied. A peace accord between the government and the rebels, or New Forces , was signed on 4 March , and subsequently Guillaume Soro , leader of the New Forces, became prime minister. These events were seen by some observers as substantially strengthening Gbagbo's position. Communities across the country required repairs to their water supply. The presidential elections that should have been organized in were postponed until November The preliminary results announced independently by the president of the Electoral Commission from the headquarters of Ouattara due to concern about fraud in that commission.
The ruling FPI contested the results before the Constitutional Council , charging massive fraud in the northern departments controlled by the rebels of the New Forces. These charges were contradicted by United Nations observers unlike African Union observers. The report of the results led to severe tension and violent incidents. These events raised fears of a resurgence of the civil war; thousands of refugees fled the country.
The United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution recognising Alassane Ouattara as winner of the elections, based on the position of the Economic Community of West African States , which suspended Ivory Coast from all its decision-making bodies  while the African Union also suspended the country's membership. Immigration and Customs Enforcement operation charged with procuring and illegal export of weapons and munitions: His accomplice, Michael Barry Shor, an international trader, was located in Virginia. International organizations reported numerous human-rights violations by both sides.
The country was severely damaged by the war, and observers say it will be a challenge for Ouattara to rebuild the economy and reunite Ivorians. A country should aim to develop an appreciation for how scholars, policy makers and civilians in various regions of the nation understand the impacts of political, social and economic borders. Recent reports by the IMF have determined that Ivory Coast is still perceived to be highly corrupt and to lack overall governance.
Ivory Coast is a country of western sub-Saharan Africa. Water pollution is amongst one of the biggest issues that the country is currently facing. Since , Ivory Coast has been administratively organised into 12 districts plus two district-level autonomous cities. The districts are divided into 31 regions ; the regions are divided into departments ; and the departments are divided into sub-prefectures. The autonomous districts are not divided into regions, but they do contain departments, sub-prefectures, and communes.
Since , governors for the 12 non-autonomous districts have not been appointed, and as a result these districts have not yet begun to function as governmental entities. The government is divided into three branches: In the legislative branch, Guillaume Soro directs the National Assembly and its members, elected for five-year terms. Since , Ivory Coast's capital has been Yamoussoukro, while Abidjan was the administrative center. Most countries maintain their embassies in Abidjan.
The Ivoirian population has suffered because of the ongoing civil war. International human-rights organizations have noted problems with the treatment of captive non-combatants by both sides and the re-emergence of child slavery in cocoa production. Although most of the fighting ended by late , the country remained split in two, with the north controlled by the New Forces.
A new presidential election was expected to be held in October , and the rival parties agreed in March to proceed with this, but it continued to be postponed until November due to delays in its preparation. Elections were finally held in The first round of elections was held peacefully, and widely hailed as free and fair. Runoffs were held 28 November , after being delayed one week from the original date of 21 November. In response, the Gbagbo-aligned Constitutional Council rejected the declaration, and the government announced that country's borders had been sealed.
An Ivorian military spokesman said, "The air, land, and sea border of the country are closed to all movement of people and goods. In Africa, Ivorian diplomacy favors step-by-step economic and political cooperation. A founding member of the Organization of African Unity OAU in and then of the African Union in , Ivory Coast defends respect for state sovereignty and peaceful cooperation between African countries. Worldwide, Ivorian diplomacy is committed to fair economic and trade relations, including the fair trade of agricultural products and the promotion of peaceful relations with all countries.
Ivory Coast thus maintains diplomatic relations with international organizations and countries all around the world. Ivory Coast has partnered with nations of the Sub-Saharan region to strengthen water and sanitation infrastructure.
They focus on health, education, poverty, hunger, climate change, water sanitation, and hygiene. A major focus was clean water and salinisation. Experts working on this field have designed the WASH concept. WASH focuses on safe drinkable water, hygiene, and proper sanitation. The group has had a major impact on the sub-Saharan region of Africa, particularly the Ivory Coast.
I. — Les fondements juridiques de l'action environnementale à l'époque Selon les spécialistes, « éléphants d'Afrique, dont 3 en Côte- d'Ivoire, sont Dans le cadre de cette étude, nous avons choisi d'interroger le passé non .. A notre avis, il semble que cela soit dû à la crise que traversait le système. France and other Western nations for capital and technology, the Ivorian state is center of the ral aspects of an economic system, or mode of production. The ruling eli was not until the political and social crises of the early s that the state .. ivoirien." Revue Frangaise d'Etudes Politique Africaines / 79
By , they plan to have universal and equal access to safe and affordable drinking water. The country is the world's largest exporter of cocoa beans , and the fourth-largest exporter of goods, in general, in sub-Saharan Africa following South Africa, Nigeria, and Angola.
Close ties to France since independence in , diversification of agricultural exports, and encouragement of foreign investment have been factors in the economic growth of Ivory Coast. In recent years, Ivory Coast has been subject to greater competition and falling prices in the global marketplace for its primary agricultural crops: That, compounded with high internal corruption, makes life difficult for the grower, those exporting into foreign markets, and the labor force, inasmuch as instances of indentured labor have been reported in the country's cocoa and coffee production in every edition of the U.
The Ivory Coast's economy has grown faster than that of most other African countries since independence. One possible reason for this might be taxes on export agriculture. Ivory Coast, Nigeria, and Kenya were exceptions as their rulers were themselves large cash-crop producers, and the newly independent countries desisted from imposing penal rates of taxation on export agriculture, with the result that their economies were doing well.
The country's population was 15,, in ,  and was estimated to be 20,, in ,  and 23,, in July According to government survey, the fertility rate was 5. French, the official language, is taught in schools and serves as a lingua franca in the country. An estimated 65 languages are spoken in Ivory Coast. One of the most common is Dyula , which acts as a trade language, as well as a language commonly spoken by the Muslim population.
The work force took a hit, especially in the private sector, during the early s due to the numerous economic crises since Furthermore, these crises caused companies to close and move locations, especially in Ivory Coast's tourism industry, transit and banking companies.